Human milk provides the most complete form of nutrition for infants, including premature and sick newborns, with rare exception. When direct breast-feeding is not possible, expressed milk should be provided. In cases of maternal infection, the basic tenet is that breast-feeding is rarely contraindicated. The few exceptions are situations where infectious agents may be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Advice against breast-feeding should be based on careful consideration of the general benefits for mother and baby, the risks of not receiving human milk, and the most current information about the condition.